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«ПРОГРАММА ВСТУПИТЕЛЬНОГО ИСПЫТАНИЯ по дисциплине «ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК» (английский, немецкий) Введение Программа предназначена для поступающих в аспирантуру Дальневосточного института ...»

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Germany had been de facto divided, and two independent states, Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic] were created within the borders of Allied and Soviet occupation zones, accordingly. The rest of Europe was also divided onto Western and Soviet spheres of influence. Most eastern and central European countries fell into the Soviet sphere, which led to establishment of Communist led regimes, with full or partial support of the Soviet occupation authorities. As a result, Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Albania] became Soviet Satellite states.



Communist Yugoslavia conducted a fully independent policy, causing tension with the USSR.

Post-war division of the world was formalised by two international military alliances, the United States-led NATO and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact; the long period of political tensions and military competition between them, the Cold War, would be accompanied by an unprecedented arms race and proxy wars.

In Asia, the United States led the occupation of Japan and administrated Japan's former islands in the Western Pacific, while the Soviets annexed Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Korea, formerly under Japanese rule, was divided and occupied by the US in the South and the Soviet Union in the North between 1945 and 1948. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in 1948, each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War.

In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed the civil war in June

1946. Communist forces were victorious and established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, while nationalist forces retreated to Taiwan in 1949.

In the Middle East, the Arab rejection of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and the creation of Israel marked the escalation of the Arab-Israeli conflict. While European colonial powers attempted to retain some or all of their colonial empires, their losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful, leading to decolonisation.

The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although participating nations were affected differently. The US emerged much richer than any other nation; it had a baby boom and by 1950 its gross domestic product per person was much higher than that of any of the other powers and it dominated the world economy. The UK and US pursued a policy of industrial disarmament in Western Germany in the years 1945–1948. Due to international trade interdependencies this led to European economic stagnation and delayed European recovery for several years.

Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused. The post 1948 West German recovery has been called the German economic miracle. Also the Italian and French economies rebounded. By contrast, the United Kingdom was in a state of economic ruin, and although it received a quarter of the total Marshall Plan assistance, more than any other European country, continued relative economic decline for decades. The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era. Japan experienced incredibly rapid economic growth, becoming one of the most powerful economies in the world by the 1980s. China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.

Exercise 3. Prove or refute by citing the text

Germany didn’t lose any of its pre-war territories after World War II.

In the middle of the 20th century the population of West Germany increased due to refugees from the East.

The United Nations Organization was formed to support peace in the world.

Post-war Communist led regime was established in most western countries.

White European colonial powers did their best to keep colonies and gained victory in their attempts.

It was the United Kingdom that experienced rapid economic growth in post-war period.

Exercise 4. Translate the following passage. Do it in writing

In an effort to maintain peace, the Allies formed the United Nations, which officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as a common standard for all member nations.





The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, Soviet Union, China, Britain, and France—formed the permanent members of the UN's Security Council. The five permanent members remain so to the present, although there have been two seat changes, between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China in 1971, and between the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over.

Exercise 5. Entitle the following passage

Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused. The post 1948 West German recovery has been called the German economic miracle. Also the Italian and French economies rebounded. By contrast, the United Kingdom was in a state of economic ruin, and although it received a quarter of the total Marshall Plan assistance, more than any other European country, continued relative economic decline for decades. The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era. Japan experienced incredibly rapid economic growth, becoming one of the most powerful economies in the world by the 1980s. China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.

Exercise 6. Find the information in the text saying that … Крупные державы западной Европы делали все возможное для сохранения своих колониальных владений в послевоенный период, но эти попытки не увенчались успехом и привели к распаду колониальной системы и образованию новых независимых государств в 50- е годы 20-го века.

–  –  –

Exercise 2. Read the text and do the following tasks The role of the financial manager in a modern company is everchanging.

The responsibilities involved are broadening and becoming more vital to the company's overall development. Once these responsibilities were confined mainly to keeping accurate financial records, preparing reports, managing the firm's cash position, and providing the means for the payment of bills. When liquidity was insufficient for the firm's prospective cash needs, the financial manager was responsible for procuring additional funds. However, this procurement often included only the mechanical aspects of raising funds externally on either a short-, an intermediate-, or a long-term basis.

In recent years, the influence of the financial manager has expanded far beyond these limited functions. Now his concern is with the investment of funds in assets and obtaining the best mix of financing in relation to the overall valuation of the firm. The former determines the size of the firm, its profits from operations, its business risk, and its liquidity. The latter determines the firm's financial charges and its financial risk. The financial manager needs a much broader outlook than he has ever needed before, for his influence reaches into almost all facets of the enterprise and into the external environment as well.

In order to better understand the changing role of the financial manager and the evolution of his functions, it is useful to trace the changing character of finance as an academic discipline. In the early part of this century, corporation finance emerged as a separate field of study, whereas before it was considered primarily as a part of economics. By and large, the field encompassed only the instruments, institutions, and procedural aspects of the capital markets. At that time, there were many consolidations, the largest of which was the colossal formation of U.S. Steel Corporation in 1900. These combinations involved the issuance of huge blocks of fixed-income and equity securities. Consequently, there was considerable interest in promotion, and in consolidations and mergers. Accounting data and financial records, as we know them today, were nonexistent. Only with the advent of regulations did disclosure of financial data become prevalent.

With the era of technological innovation and new industries in the 1920s, firms needed more funds. The result was a greater emphasis on liquidity and financing of the firm. Considerable attention was directed to describing methods of external financing, and little to managing a firm internally. One of the important texts of this period was Arthur Stone Dewing's Financial Policy of Corporations, which in a scholarly fashion, drew together existing thought, promulgated certain new ideas, and served to pattern the teaching of finance for many years to come. During this period, there was widespread interest in securities, particularly in common stock. This interest became intense toward the end of the decade, and the role and function of the investment banker was particularly important in the study of corporate finance at this time.

The Depression of the thirties necessarily focused the study of finance on the defensive aspects of survival. A great deal of attention was directed towards the preservation of liquidity and towards bankruptcy, liquidation, and reorganization. The principal concern in external financing was how a lender could protect himself. Conservatism, naturally, reigned supreme, with considerable emphasis on a company's maintaining a sound financial structure.

The large number of abuses with debt – particularly those that occurred in connection with public utility holding companies – were brought into the limelight when many companies collapsed. These failures, together with the fraudulent maltreatment of numerous investors, brought cries for regulation.

Regulation and increased controls on business by government were quick to follow. One result of these regulations was an increase in the amount of financial data disclosed by companies. This disclosure made financial analysis more encompassing, because the analyst was able to compare different companies as to their financial condition and performance.

Finance, during the forties through the early fifties, was dominated by a "traditional" approach. This approach, which had evolved during the twenties and thirties, was from the point of view of an outsider – such as a lender or investor – analyzing the firm and did not emphasize decision making within the firm. The study of external financing was still largely descriptive. During this period, however, a greater emphasis on analyzing the cash flows of the firm and on the planning and control of these flows from within did develop.

In the middle fifties, great interest developed in capital budgeting and allied considerations. This topic and the concurrent emphasis on present value served as a catalyst for the sweeping changes that subsequently occurred. With the development of new methods and techniques for selecting capital investment projects came a framework for the efficient allocation of capital within the firm. New fields of responsibility and influence for the financial manager included management of the total funds committed to assets and the allocation of capital to individual assets on the basis of an appropriate and objective acceptance criterion.

Exercise 3. Prove or refute by citing the text The author of the text says that the role of the manager in modern company is confined only to providing the means for the payment of bills.

Today corporation finance is considered primarily as a part of economics.

The result of technological innovation and new industries in the 1920s was an emphasis on 4 factors of production: natural resources, people resources, capital and entrepreneurs.

The principal concern in external financing was that a borrower could protect himself.

It took many years before regulations and increased controls on business by government were introduced during Depression of the thirties.

Exercise 4. Translate the following passage. Do it in writing The Depression of the thirties necessarily focused the study of finance on the defensive aspects of survival. A great deal of attention was directed towards the preservation of liquidity and towards bankruptcy, liquidation, and reorganization. The principal concern in external financing was how a lender could protect himself. Conservatism, naturally, reigned supreme, with considerable emphasis on a company's maintaining a sound financial structure.

The large number of abuses with debt—particularly those that occurred in connection with public utility holding companies—were brought into the limelight when many companies collapsed. These failures, together with the fraudulent maltreatment of numerous investors, brought cries for regulation.

Regulation and increased controls on business by government were quick to follow. One result of these regulations was an increase in the amount of financial data disclosed by companies. This disclosure made financial analysis more encompassing, because the analyst was able to compare different companies as to their financial condition and performance.

Exercise 5. Entitle the following passage In order to better understand the changing role of the financial manager and the evolution of his functions, it is useful to trace the changing character of finance as an academic discipline. In the early part of this century, corporation finance emerged as a separate field of study, whereas before it was considered primarily as a part of economics. By and large, the field encompassed only the instruments, institutions, and procedural aspects of the capital markets. At that time, there were many consolidations, the largest of which was the colossal formation of U.S. Steel Corporation in 1900. These combinations involved the issuance of huge blocks of fixed-income and equity securities. Consequently, there was considerable interest in promotion, and in consolidations and mergers. Accounting data and financial records, as we know them today, were nonexistent. Only with the advent of regulations did disclosure of financial data become prevalent.

Exercise 6. Find the information in the text saying that ….

Функции финансового менеджера до некоторых пор сводились к подготовке отчетов, к определению состояния финансового положения фирмы, а также к оплате всех счетов фирмы.

–  –  –

Образец текста для второго экзаменационного задания Read the article and answer the questions. Prepare the gist of the article.

The Economist, March 8th-14th, 2014

–  –  –

liberation in the central square, waving installed Sergei Aksenov, nicknamed Russian flags to the accompaniment of "Goblin" and a rumoured ex-gangster, as Cossack songs, a Soviet-era pop group, prime minister (a perfectly legitimate and the fleet's choir. procedure, according to Mr Putin). Mr There was only one thing Aksenov promptly called an missing: the enemy. Everyone in unconstitutional referendum on Crimea's Crimea, and now across eastern status, declared himself in charge of CriUkraine, is talking about Ukrainian mea's armed forces and called on Mr fascists, but nobody has actually seen Putin or help. Days later Crimea's one. "We have not seen them here yet, parliament voted to join Russia.

but we have seen them on television," said Stanislav Nagorny, an aide to the leader of a local "self-defense" force in Sebastopol. The confusion was understandable: Russian television had unleashed a propaganda campaign impressive in both its intensity and cynicism, stoking ethnic hatred and exacerbating historical divides, mixing half truths with outright lies. Rightwing extremists and nationalists did take part in the revolution, but they do not control the government.

Russia struck when Ukraine was at its weakest-mourning the deaths of those who died on the Maidan, Kiev's Independence Square, during an abortive crackdown by Mr Yanukovych, and struggling to form a new government. The Kremlin was greatly assisted in its task by Ukraine's parliament which, despite the obvious tension between the Russian-speaking east of the country and the Ukrainianspeaking west, irresponsibly passed a bill (later dropped) that repealed the status of Russian as an official language on a par with Ukrainian. Parliament also failed to bring politicians from eastern Ukraine into the government.

The choreography was at once smooth and farcical. Assisted by Mr Yanukovych's sudden reappearance on February 27th, Russia described events in Kiev as a coup while mounting a coup of its own to the south. As gunmen looked on, local deputies

1. Who overthrew the legitimate president in Kiev?

2. Who did ethnic Russians run to?

3. Has the spectacle of deception jeopardized European security?

4. Under what pretence did Russia occupy Crimea?

5. Do you consider Crimea to be a part of Russia or Ukraine?

6. How did local people of Crimea take their liberation?

7. What does the author of the article think about mass media campaign regarding events in Crimea?

8. What was the Kremlin assisted by when it occupied Crimea?

9. How does Russia describe events in Kiev?



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